Peer-reviewed journal articles

  • Levä, T., Ilaghi, M., Looga, V., Komu, M., Beijar, N., & Mazhelis, O. (2016). Adoption of Constrained Application Protocol: A Techno-Economic Perspective. International Journal of Innovation in the Digital Economy (IJIDE), 7(1), 38-53, DOI: 10.4018/IJIDE.2016010104. [article (pdf] [link to journal]
  • Levä, T., Riikonen, A., Töyli, J. & Hämmäinen H. (2014). A framework for measuring the deployment of Internet protocols. International Journal of IT Standards and Standardization Research, 12(1), 38-62, DOI: 10.4018/IJITSR. [article (pdf] [link to journal]
  • Levä, T., Mazhelis, O., & Suomi, H. (2014). Comparing the cost-efficiency of CoAP and HTTP in Web of Things applications. Decision Support Systems, 63(July), 23-38, DOI: 10.1016/j.dss.2013.09.009. [manuscript (pdf)] [link to journal]
  • Levä, T., & Suomi, H. (2013). Techno-economic feasibility analysis of Internet protocols: Framework and tools. Computer Standards & Interfaces, 36(1), 76-88. DOI: 10.1016/j.csi.2013.07.011. [manuscript (pdf)] [link to journal]
  • Levä, T., Komu, M., Keränen, A., & Luukkainen, S. (2013). Adoption barriers of network layer protocols: The case of host identity protocol. Computer Networks, 57(10), 2218-2232. DOI: 10.1016/j.comnet.2012.11.024. [manuscript (pdf)] [link to journal]
  • Zhang, N., Levä, T., & Hämmäinen, H. (2014). Value networks and two-sided markets of Internet content delivery. Telecommunications Policy, 38(5-6), 460-472DOI: 10.1016/j.telpol.2013.03.004. [manuscript (pdf)] [link to journal]
  • Warma, H., Levä, T., Tripp, H., Ford, A., & Kostopoulos, A. (2011). Dynamics of communication protocol diffusion: The case of multipath TCP. Netnomics, 12(2), 133-159. DOI: 10.1007/s11066-011-9063-8. [manuscript (pdf)] [link to journal]

Peer-reviewed conference papers

  • Ilaghi, M., Levä, T., Komu, M. (2014). Techno-economic feasibility analysis of constrained application protocol. In Proceedings of the 2014 IEEE World Forum on Internet of Things (WF-IoT), March 6-8, Seoul, Korea. [pdf] [link to conference]
  • Levä, T., & Riikonen, A. (2013). Diffusion of Internet protocols – Measurement framework and empirical analysis of the Finnish mobile market. In Proceedings of the 8th IEEE Conference on Standardisation and Innovation in Information Technology (SIIT 2013), September 24-26, Sophia-Antipolis, France. [pdf] [link to conference]
  • Zhang, N., Hämmäinen, H., & Levä, T. (2012). Future scenarios of commercial Internet content delivery. In Proceedings of the 23rd European Regional Conference of the International Telecommunication Society, July 1-4, Vienna, Austria. [pdf] [link to conference]
  • Zhang, N., Levä, T., & Hämmäinen, H. (2011). Two-sidedness of Internet content delivery. In Proceedings of the 10th Conference of Telecommunication, Media and Internet Techno-Economics (CTTE), May 16-18, Berlin, Germany. [pdf] [link to conference]
  • Warma, H., Levä, T., Eggert, L., Hämmäinen, H., & Manner, J. (2010). Mobile Internet in stereo: An end-to-end scenario. In Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Economic Traffic Management (ETM 2010), September 6, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. [pdf] [link to conference]
  • Kostopoulos, A., Warma, H., Levä, T., Heinrich, B., Ford, A., & Eggert, L. (2010). Towards multipath TCP adoption: Challenges and opportunities. In Proceedings of the 6th Euro-NF Conference on Next Generation Internet, June 2-4, Paris, France. [pdf] [link to conference]
  • Levä, T., Hämmäinen, H., & Kilkki, K. (2009). Scenario analysis on future Internet. In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Evolving Internet (INTERNET 2009), August 23-29, Cannes/La Bocca, France. [pdf] [link to conference]

Peer-reviewed book chapters

  • Levä, T., Riikonen, A., Töyli, J., & Hämmäinen, H. (2018). Measuring the Deployment of Internet Protocols. In Corporate and Global Standardization Initiatives in Contemporary Society (pp. 313-340). IGI Global. Available on: [link]
  • Zhang, N., Levä, T., Hämmäinen, H. (2014). SDMN: Industry Architecture Evolution Paths. In M. Liyanage et al. (Eds.), Software Defined Mobile Networks (SDMN): Beyond LTE Network Architecture (pp. 359-378)DOI: 10.1002/9781118900253. Available on: [link]
  • Kostopoulos, A., Papafili, I., Kalogiros, C., Levä, T., Zhang, N., & Trossen, D. (2012). A tussle analysis for information-centric networking architectures. In F. Alvarez et al. (Eds.), The Future Internet – Future Internet Assembly 2012: From Promises to Reality (pp. 6-17). DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-30241-1_2. Available on: [link]
  • Eardley, P., Kanakakis, M., Kostopoulos, A., Levä, T., Richardson, K., & Warma, H. (2011). Deployment and adoption of future Internet protocols. In J. Domingue et al. (Eds.), The Future Internet – Future Internet Assembly 2011: Achievements and Technological Promises (pp. 133-144). DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-20898-0_10. Available on: [link]
  • Levä, T., Warma, H., Ford, A., Kostopoulos, A., Heinrich, B., Widera, R., & Eardley, P. (2010). Business aspects of multipath TCP adoption. In G. Tselentis et al. (Eds.), Towards the Future Internet (pp. 21-30). IOS Press. DOI: 10.3233/978-1-60750-539-6-21. Available on: [link]
  • Iannode, L., & Levä, T. (2010). Modeling the economics of Loc/ID Split for the future Internet. In G. Tselentis et al. (Eds.), Towards the Future Internet (pp. 11-20). IOS Press. DOI: 10.3233/978-1-60750-539-6-11. Available on: [link]


  • Levä, T. (2014). Feasibility analysis of new Internet protocols: Methods and case studies. Doctoral dissertation, Department of Communications and Networking, Aalto University. [pdf] [link]
  • Levä, T. (2009). Scenario analysis on future Internet. Master’s Thesis, Department of Communications and Networking, Helsinki University of Technology. [pdf] [link]

Other publications (not peer-reviewed)

  • Levä, T., & Suomi, H. (2014). Feasibility analysis of new Internet protocols. Poster presented at Aalto ELEC Research Winter Day, 12 February, 2014, Espoo, Finland. [pdf]
  • Levä, T., & Suomi, H. (2013). Framework for analyzing the feasibility of Internet protocols. Position paper presented at the IAB ITAT workshop, December 4-5, Cambridge, UK. [pdf] [slides]
  • Hämmäinen, H., Ford, A., Kostopoulos, A., Heinrich, B., Levä, T., Widera, R., Courcoubetis, C., & Eardley P. (2009). Business models in a multipath world. Poster presented on Future Internet Assembly, 23-24 November, Stockholm, Sweden. [pdf]
  • Levä, T. (2009). Transit and access Prices – Evolution and interdependencies. In H. Hämmäinen H., P. Nikander P., J. Ott J., & M. Heikkinen (2009), Techno-economic analysis of Internet Architecture Evolution. [pdf]
  • Levä, T. (2009). Questionnaire study on mobile peer-to-peer. Special Assignment, Department of Communications and Networking, Helsinki University of Technology, 2009. [pdf]